Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Filipino Games Essay

Like any other country in the world, Philippines have many different games that are played as a past time, or simply for recreational purposes. Some games are more popular and more well-known than the others, but the three games that stuck out at me were Tubigan, Sungka, and Culliot. Tubigan, also known as Patintero, is played outdoors. The players are divided into two equal teams. Based on a coin toss, one team becomes the runners, and the other becomes the tagger. The object of the runner is to get through all the lines back and forth without being tagged. To set this game up, the ground is marked off in a 5 or 6 meter rectangle divided into four equal parts. The taggers stand 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the marked lines. Tagger number 1 can go anywhere to tag the runners. Taggers 2, 3, and 4 must have both feet on the marked lines, and can only tag the runner as they cross their lines or as they get near them. As soon as the runners cross line 4, he must return to line 2 and call out â€Å"Tubig! † scoring a point for his team. The runners must score a clean pass within 2 minutes; otherwise a turnover will be called. Sungka, known as mancala in Southern Asia, has been around in the Philippines for as long as anyone can remember. The sungka board is a small treasure – the older it is, the more precious, it sits on a side table or a top bench, waiting to be played. The sungka board is a shallow boat made of solid wood. The whole length of the boat is lined in seven small bowls carved in pairs, with two large deep bowls carved out at both ends (bahay) for captured â€Å"sigay†. The props needed for this game are pebbles, â€Å"sigay† or shells, or seeds. In each small pit are initially 7 â€Å"sigay. † Sungka is always played by two people. At each turn a player empties one of his small pits and then distributes its contents in a counterclockwise direction, one by one, into the following pits including his own store, but passing the opponents store. If the last stone falls into a non-empty small pit, its contents are lifted and distributed in another lap. If the last stone is dropped into the player’s own store, the player gets a bonus move. If the last stone is dropped into an empty pit, the move ends. If the move ends by dropping the last stone into one of your own small pits you capture the â€Å"sigay† in the opponent’s pit directly across the board and your own stone. The captured â€Å"sigay† are deposited in your store. However, if the opponent’s pit is empty, nothing is captured. The first move is played simultaneously. After that play is alternately. The first player to finish the first move may start the second move. However, in face-to-face play one player might start shortly after his opponent so that he could choose a response which would give him an advantage. There is no rule that actually could prevent such a tactic. So, in fact, the decision-making may be non-simultaneous. You must move if you can. If you can’t a player must pass until he can move again. The game ends when no â€Å"sigay† are left in the small pits. The player who captures most â€Å"sigay† wins the game. The game culliot is similar to the game of tug-of-war. Two or more players can play this. The purpose of this team is to pull the other team over the borderline. The equipment needed is a 15-meter long rope with a diameter of 3. 81 centimeters. Each team must have an equal number of players. The teams are placed five meters away from each other. Both ends of the rope should be tied on the waist of the last player while the others hold on to the rope. A piece of ribbon or handkerchief is tied onto the centerline of the rope. Upon the signal to start, each team pulls the other, attempting to pull the opposing team over the borderline, thus becoming the winner. In my opinion, the cultural aspect of these games teaches teamwork, skill, wit, as well as strength. Growing up, I have played all of the above games. I had no idea that they were Filipino games, except for sungka. I like these games because it brought my family and I closer together; my cousins and I especially. These games taught us how to work as a team, think about our decisions before we make a move, and wit.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Leadership Styles At Consulate Health Care Of West Palm Beach

Section 1 – Introduction This project discovers and defines the leadership styles founded at Consulate Health Care of West Palm Beach. I would like to mention two managers in this research paper, both working for the same company but with two different leadership styles. I will be comparing and contrasting their leadership styles, as well as making some suggestions based on the information provided. This organization was recently acquired by Consulate Health Care. Before that, Tandem Group was the owner of it, where the leadership style was quite different. As of today, this facility has an Executive Director who is in charge of all operations, as well as leading and managing. Consulate Health Care of West Palm Beach has a well design hierarchy structure, and every member of it contributes to the regular operations of the facility. With the recently change of our CEO, the company has been focusing in its employees and how to lead them, instead of managing. Section II - Background Consulate Health Care of West Palm Beach is a rehabilitation center, where it has space for 120 residents (that is how they call their patients). The majority of these residents are long term and have been living in this facility for over two years. This branch is situated in West Palm Beach and it was open back in 1997, formerly known as Tandem Health Care. As of today, it has 150 employees, among housekeeping, dietary aid, therapy, nurses, etc. Consulate Health Care never rests; it is open everyShow MoreRelatedProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pages6.5.2.3 Critical chain method Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Reducing Project Duration Leadership Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 1.4.1 Managing the portfolio 1.4.3 Strategy and projects 2.3 Stakeholders and review boards 12.1 RFP’s and vendor selection (.3.4.5) 11.2.2.6 SWAT analysis 6.5.2.7 Schedule compression 9.4.2.5 Leadership skills G.1 Project leadership 10.1 Stakeholder management Chapter 11 Teams Chapter 3 Organization: Structure

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Observation Of Early Childhood Children - 1162 Words

As a child is born there is no greater love for a parent. Seeing a child go from babbling to graduating and becoming an adult can be one of a parent’s greatest accomplishments. However, what is astonishing is being able to witness the development in each milestone of a child’s life. When a child starts learning new words or learning who they want to be in life. These milestones are all a part of life and each age develops a new sense of self. A doctor, scientist, teacher, etc. My paper is based on the observation of early childhood aged children from our church ministry. The church children’s ministry ranged from ages two to age five. While observing I found some similarities as well as differences but most of all joy and I loved every minute. Cognitively these kiddos were in Jean Piaget’s: preoperational stage (2-5 years old) and Erik Erikson’s: autonomy vs. shame doubt (2-3 years old), initiative vs. guilt (4-5 years old) psycho-social stages. Th ese kiddos should now be able to use a better representation of the world around them. As Piaget explains symbolic representation is the first sign that kids are moving out of sensorimotor (P.47). Erikson describes how children are torn between the desire for independence and need to depend on their caregiver (autonomy vs. shame doubt) or learning more about conflict (initiative vs. guilt) (P.37). These children varied in age I noticed the younger kids a lot more â€Å"clingy.† Some children would sing others hide behind theirShow MoreRelatedA Pleasurable And Educational Preschool Observation1271 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ A Pleasurable and Educational Preschool Observation: Option E I observed a 4 year old preschool class during playtime in Staten Island, New York. The class consisted of eight children, and one certified preschool teacher. There were 4 boys and 4 girls in the class. During my sixty minute observation I noticed several instances of dramatic play, peer relationships, relationships with adults, and self-control. Dramatic Play During my observation, I witnessed a group of two- one boy and one girl-playingRead MoreDevelopmentally Appropriate Practices ( Dap )960 Words   |  4 Pagesmethod of teaching that is based on the research about how young children grow and learn and includes standards for high quality care and education for young children. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) established these guidelines more than 20 years ago. Authors Gordon and Browne state, â€Å"The DAP approach stresses the need for activity-based learning environments and is based on what we know about children through years of child development research and what we observeRead MoreDeveloping A Safe And Healthy Environment1471 Words   |  6 Pageschild (Early Learning for, 2007, p. 3). In November 2004, the Ontario administration created a great plan called the â€Å"Early Learning for Every Child Today† (ELECT). By launching this plan, Ontario fulfilled its dream. In addition, the E LECT document contains comprehensive and rich sources of information that enhances, rather than modifies, planned curriculum in all Ontario’s care centers operating under the Day Nurseries Act. As long as early childhood professionals working in early childhood settingsRead MorePlanning in Early Childhood1400 Words   |  6 PagesThe observation of children is performed by teachers and educators, to help understand each child, and their characteristics. Along with assessment and evaluation, educators are able to understand each child’s development, and make decisions about appropriate activities and experience to offer each child, to help foster their individual development. (Veale, A. and Piscitelli, B. 1988) This essay will discuss the Value of the Observation Process in Planning for early childhood settings, and the roleRead MoreSimilarities and Differences between Reggio Emilia and High Scope1681 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many different curriculums that are used in early childhood classrooms. Two curriculums that are used are High Scope and Reggio Emilia. Both of these curriculums have unique aspects that make up their curriculums. In addition, High Scope and Reggio Emilia have similarities and differences. In Ypsilanti, Michigan Dr. David P. Weikard created High Scope in 1970. High Scope does research in a variety of areas. However, they are best known for their research in preschool education andRead MoreChildhood Development And The Whole Child Concept Essay1365 Words   |  6 Pages1 Define early childhood development and the Whole Child concept. Early childhood development is the study of children’s growing and development from eight years old to pre-birth. Explain why it is important to understand early childhood development. It is important to understand early childhood development because it helps to understand the children better. In order for the teachers to meet the children’s needs, they have to know how and what they need to do. Learning early childhood developmentRead MoreCommunication in Early Childhood1450 Words   |  6 Pagesimportant factor for young children’s learning and social development. Humans have the unique skills of language and speech to enable the sharing of information, knowledge and feelings with others. Early childhood educators have an important job to nurture and support the development of communication in children. Communication skills are required in order to deliver the right message and convey it properly to the child. These involve body languages and facial expression. Without this, an educator losesRead MoreScience Is Not For Me1459 Words   |  6 Pagesscience and the reintroduction of it into the classroom. More recently there has been a focus on introducing science in to the early childhood classroom. The growing consensus behind this notion is the findings that suggest children’s learning potential at this age. This paper proposes a question, what are the benefits if any, in introducing science as a part of the early childhood curriculum. Diving into the answer as to why science is important will reveal just how natural science is for these youngRead MoreKei Tua o Te Pai: Early Childhood Assessment Exemplars1228 Words   |  5 Pagesabout assessing childrens learning through play, Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for learning: Early Childhood Exemplars, learning stories and how beneficial Kei Tua o te Pae and learning stories are to early childhood teachers. Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for learning: Early Childhood Exemplars are extremely useful to any early childhood teacher at any level, from the student teacher, to the early childhood teacher with decades of experience as there are many different examples of assessing a childRead MoreObservation Paper1649 Words   |  7 PagesObservation In order to be a good educator, it is critical to observe children during their learning experiences. Observations allow the educator to determine what the child knows, can do and understand (Early Childhood Australia, 2012, p.1). Observations help the educator to implement experiences, which are of interest to the children helping to build on their knowledge. According to Curtis Carter (2013, p. 16) educators have many demands and distractions; therefore learning to pay attention requires

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Mainstreaming Of Children With Disabilities - 1286 Words

Mainstreaming of Children with Disabilities One of the most important factors in a well, social functioning child with a disability is education. Proper education will offer a child the opportunity to be successful on a higher level than a child without an education. When a child enters the school system they are entering in an environment that is unfamiliar and challenging. Children with physical disabilities and lack of full cognitive reasoning, sense their differences around other children. According to Welsh, Parke, Widaman, O’Neil, 2001; â€Å"Social ability can have a significant impact on a child’s academic success in the classroom†. Social skills are a very important factor when it comes to educating children with disabilities. Lack of social skills could show feelings of anxiety and depression which will affect their learning. A child with anxiety and or depression would probably be noticeable to other children causing social awkwardness. Physica l disabilities can also be a social challenge in any setting, curiosity of the unknown by surrounding children can present insecurities for a child with a physical disability. This may cause a child to retreat from social activities, because they fear the questions, staring and difference of treatment. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H.W. Bush. This act was modeled after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis ofShow MoreRelatedEducational Education And Special Education1556 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities, 89% of children with moderate learning difficulties, 24% of children with severe learning difficulties and 18% of children with profound multiple learning difficulties are educated in mainstream schools. Something so prevalent must surely be effective. However, that is not always the case. It’s disheartening watchin g these mainstreamed students struggle socially and academically. Either looked over or coddled by general educationRead MoreMainstreaming : The Influence Of Inclusion Based Education1586 Words   |  7 PagesMainstreaming: The Influence of Inclusion-Based Education According to the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities, 89% of children with moderate learning difficulties, 24% of children with severe learning difficulties and 18% of children with profound multiple learning difficulties are educated in mainstream schools. A practice so prevalent must surely be effective. However, that is not always the case. It’s disheartening watching these mainstreamed students struggle socially and academicallyRead MoreBenefits Of Mainstreaming Students With Disabilities Essay1658 Words   |  7 Pagesyears and have been set back in each IEP (Individualized Educational Plan) on what would benefit the child. Not enough students with disabilities are being mainstreamed so they can experience the full capacity of their learning stages. It is important for all individuals involved to understand the pros and cons associated with placing a student with disabilities into a normal classroom with everyday students. Allowing students the opportunity to learn with and from their peers allows students toRead MoreShould Special Needs Children Be Mainstreamed?1183 Words   |  5 PagesMany argue whether special needs children should be mainstreamed. Mainstreaming is when a school puts children with special needs into classrooms with their peers who have no disabilities (Masters in Special Education Degree Program Guide). Inclusion is a term which expresses the commitment to educate each child, to maximization extent appropriate, in the school and classroom that he or she would otherwise attend (Wisconsin in Education Association Council). Special education is a term used in theRead MoreEducating Students With Children With Disabilities969 Words   |  4 PagesMainstreaming in Education â€Å"We must understand that inclusion is first and foremost a philosophy. It is a mindset and a belief that everyone has value and something to contribute. It is a willingness to see the ability in everyone and match skill with challenge. It is an understanding that what our programs really provide at their heart is the opportunity to build relationships, learn who we are, and develop skills†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Friedman, 2014) Mainstreaming, one of the most controversial topics in the educationRead MoreThe Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Orders1729 Words   |  7 PagesThe Individuals With Disabilities Education Act orders all states to give disabled students a free and appropriate education. Many schools in the United States mainstream disabled students and have succeeded in properly educating them, along with creating a safe environment where they are socially comfortable and accepted. However, there are too many incidents where teachers improperly handle these students and administrators do not give enough money to fund adequate supplies for these students.Read MoreMainstreaming Special Needs Children1627 Words   |  7 PagesThe Positive Advantages to Mainstreaming Special Needs Children In an ideal world all children would be born without disabilities. This idea is not possible though and sometimes children are born with special needs. The child could have only one disability or several. A disability can be mild and treated with medication or the disability can be severe and the child will need constant supervision. Once the child becomes of age to attend school, the issue of whether or not to place the child in aRead MoreMainstreaming : The Pros And Cons Of Inclusion Based Education1452 Words   |  6 PagesMainstreaming: The Pros and Cons of Inclusion-Based Education Picture this: a special education student is placed into a general education classroom because of a new bill the district has passed recently. They are forced to adapt to the new, more arduous curriculum that they have never been exposed to before. They have to make new friends, new study habits, new choices. Would you want your child’s education to be jeopardized because a set of impractical politicians think they know what is bestRead MoreWhy Special Needs Students Should Be Mainstreamed1282 Words   |  6 Pagesneeds students should be mainstreamed What is Mainstreaming? According to (Mainstreaming: The Special Needs Child Goes to School), Mainstreaming means that the special needs child attends a regular classroom along with students who are his or her actual (not development) age. Mainstreaming means that the child is not kept isolated in a special class, away from peers, but is included just like everyone else. Most children that have physical disabilities, learning difficulties, or emotional issuesRead MoreSpecial Education : The Issue Within The Classroom1357 Words   |  6 Pagesopportunity to receive a quality education†. That statement could reflect what the general public owes to all children, an opportunity to achieve their potential. So it is vital to make the most ideal learning environment for that to happen. That is the reason educators propose to continue implementing self-contained classes, commonly referred to as Special Education classes as opposed to mainstreaming for the academic portion of a scho ol day. Special education classes consist of 1 teacher to five and a

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Passionate geography teacher Free Essays

Since an early age I have been fascinated by Geography and during my last few old ages at school I have been inspired by a truly passionate geographics instructor. The more I found out about the topic, the more interesting it appeared to me. I was captivated by how in Geography, scientific discipline interlinked with art, and the natural environment interlinked with the human society. We will write a custom essay sample on Passionate geography teacher or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hence, without vacillation I decided to prosecute a grade in Geography. I have already proven my abilities and my echt involvement for this topic as I am already a 2nd twelvemonth geographics pupil at Vilnius University, which is one of the best universities in Lithuania. The grade is disputing but at the same clip it is honoring as I am passionate about the topic. Not merely have I gained good theoretical background, but I have besides already developed some practical accomplishments used in mapmaking, geomorphology, weather forecasting every bit good as the information analysis necessary for recreational and touristry geographics. Thankss to my university surveies I have acquired a better apprehension of the natural environment. Last twelvemonth we undertook a Geomorphology field class, during which we were look intoing the land conditions to acquire a better apprehension of the formation of the soils nowadays in a wood. We besides researched the consequence of the clime alteration on the landscape. [ ( ? ? ? ) ] It was one of the most interesting parts of my class, as I had the chance to use my theoretical cognition and I besides learnt much about the land formation. [ ( ? ? ? ) . ] I enjoy traveling to seminars and discoursing about the issues that the universe and geographers are confronting. This is assisting me to understand the environment as a whole every bit good as my ain function within the universe. From the beginning of my grade I have been actively engaged in assorted facets of university life. I am a portion of the organizational and societal activities commission at our Students ‘ Union. I play a great function in organizing societal events, negotiations and developing. Most of this engagement has been as portion of assorted squads, which has non merely helped me develop my interpersonal accomplishments but besides improved my organizational accomplishments. I have ever been passionate about athleticss and have therefore taken portion in assorted sportive activities runing from swimming to hiting and have taken portion in school and university athletics competitions. I have won several decorations and my dedication for athleticss has helped me develop my squad working accomplishments every bit good as heightening my continuity. These accomplishments are critical for my university surveies and for my future professional calling. Recently, I realised that my current university is unable to suit my demands. My private research has shown that higher ( ? ? ? ) instruction in the United Kingdom offers greater learning quality and more chances for their pupils. Besides, the alumnus chances for natural scientific disciplines are significantly better than in Lithuania. Analyzing in England would besides be an first-class opportunity for me to broaden my skyline, experience cultural diverseness, and run into new people. It would be an priceless experience for me and would surely be an of import plus for my future calling. As I have studied English at school for 9 old ages and have been taking it as portion of my current grade, I am confident that analyzing in English would non present any hurdlings for me. Since the beginning of my grade I have ne’er regretted of taking Geography. Hence, there is no uncertainty in my head that I want to go on analyzing it. However, due to the differences in the course of study of English and Lithuanian universities I believe that the best option for me would be to get down my surveies once more from the first twelvemonth. How to cite Passionate geography teacher, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

A vessel too fragile Essay Example For Students

A vessel too fragile Essay Among the more ambitious and exotic offerings this season at Pittsburghs Three Rivers Shakespeare Festival is the American premiere of Ophelia, a vivid and compelling variation on the Hamlet story, created by the Kyoto-based NOHO theatre group. NOHO may not exactly be the father of Japanese-American cross-cultural fusion, but it has been so prolific and influential that it can be called at least the uncle of Japanese theatres new international visibility. The Three Rivers production, running through July 11, is a collaboration between NOHO artists and members of the Festivals Young Company, based at the University of Pittsburgh. This kind of joint effort may be nothing new for NOHO, which has been pushing the envelope of East-West theatre experimentation for over a decade. But Ophelia will break fresh ground by giving young Americans a rare chance to work with truly extraordinary Japanese artists. NOHO members like actor Matsui Akira and kotosuzumi (shoulder drum) musician Hisada Shunichiro would have been hard to find 20 years ago, when masters of Japans least flexible classical theatre form were expected to be noh artists and nothing else. Until recently, noh actors who have tried to get out from behind the mask and under the pine tree have often been penalized by the iemoto, senior masters who control each school of noh, and who are determined to keep their art untainted by anything that might damage an actors concentration and purity of style. One measure of the new status and power enjoyed by Matsui, Hisada and others like them is that they no longer have to pass up challenging opportunities or moonlight under assumed names. They can work outside noh, even outside Japan, thanks to foreign colleagues such as the American producer and director Jonah Salz, who have helped traditional Japanese actors attain a freedom that was once unthinkable. Salz first encountered Japanese theatre in all its majesty in 1977, when the high-tech stage pioneer Ichikawa Ennosuke brought one of his New Directions kabuki spectacles to New York. Salzs search for universals of performance in the Japanese and Western traditions led him to Kyoto and a meeting with Shigeyamam Akira, a young actor of classical kyogen comedy. The two co-founded NOHO in 1981 as an experiment in using the techniques and structures of noh and kyogen to interpret Western texts. In the years since, actors, dancers and musicians from 10 countries have collaborated on 25 NOHO productions of English, Japanese and bilingual plays. Their repertoire ranges from Shakespeare, Yeats and Beckett to medieval French farces, Woody Allen adaptations of Boccaccio, and even a trilingual English-German-Japanese kyogen from a story by the Brothers Grimm. For all of NOHOs hits and occasional misses, Salz and company may gain their greatest honor for having launched the revolutionary Traditional Theatre Training program. Now in its ninth year, TTT has brought together more than 60 theatre artists and scholars from Europe, Asia and the Americans to study noh, kyogen, the classical dance form Nihon buyo, and other Japanese theatre arts. Each year, a few TTT students choose to stay in Japan, and see what new things can be done with the small but venturesome mix of talent that now lives and works in Kyoto. Salz, NOHO and TTT have blazed a very wide trail that continues to open. Driven to madness by love In his first production of Ophelia outside Japan, Salz attempts to fuse an English text delivered by American actors with the atmosphere and imagery of a noh play. The result is a double mirror that reflects the heroines plight from two directions, thereby illuminating the universal predicament of those who die without knowing why their lives were ruined, nor how they might have been healed. .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .postImageUrl , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:hover , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:visited , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:active { border:0!important; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:active , .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc7c081fa634e471e8467cfa667a7633c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Elsinore in ashes. (theater in former Yugoslavia) EssayWhen told from Ophelias point of view, Hamlet has natural connections with noh   especially since one of the five categories of the noh repertoire consists of passive tragedies about women who have done no evil, but who are driven to madness by lost love. The clueless Ophelia, a vessel too fragile to withstand the currents of rage and crime breaking against her, is left unprotected by her brother, manipulated by her father and the King, and bitterly spurned by the man she loves. The murder of Polonius knocks her over the edge. Her own death is a mystery   called an accident by the Queen, a suicide by the Gravedigge r. In the NOHO version, set in the graveyard of Elsinore, Ophelias ghost appears and tells her story, sifting through shards of memory in order to attain the understanding that will dispel her nightmares and let her sleep peacefully at last. If Opheliaz agony is to become poignant enough that its release in the ritual exorcism of noh has power to calm and heal, the role requires a noh actor who is superbly grounded in his own art, yet able to find the luminous elements of pure theatre that transcend all barriers of culture, language and style. NOHO is lucky to have Matsui Akira as Ophelias ghost. This young artist   in the noh world, anyone under 50 is young   promises to be an actor of truly historic stature. He has played some of the most demanding lead roles in noh, has written and staged original dramatizations of Japanese myths (including Rashomon), gives regular workshops in Australia, Europe and the United States, and has appeared as a guest artist with several multinational companies. (With NOHO he has played Cuchulain and the Hawk in different productions of Yeatss At the Hawks Well, and has danced the Broom in The Sorcerers Apprentice. He will star in Becketts Rockaby at Oregons Portland Theatre Festival in July.) Those who get to see Matsui in Pittsburgh and Portland will understand at once his astounding possibilities, and his delicious problem. He could easily spend the rest of his life dancing and teaching outside Japan, and thereby lose contact with noh at the source; or he could become one of the most e xalted noh actors is Japan, at the price of sacrificing offers and chances from other fields and countries. Matsui is unique. He is not the first noh actor to teach abroad, but he is the first to be pulled in so many directions by would-be collaborators, students and fans. Hes like a Johnny Appleseed of Japanese theatre, tossing a few pine kernels into any field that looks clear and ready. In the next century, whole forests could spring up where Akira Matsui has gone.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Mncs in India free essay sample

MNCs in India By A V Vedpuriswar[1] Introduction With a GDP growth of almost 7 percent1, India is one of the most promising and fastest-growing economies in the world. But despite the huge potential of the country, the performance of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in India has been decidedly mixed. Many MNCs which have succeeded remarkably elsewhere in the world have yet to make a significant impact in India. The market entry and penetration strategies that have worked so well for these companies in other countries have been for less successful in India. Many MNCs have struggled to understand Indian customers and come up with suitable products and services. At the same time, some MNCs have done pretty well for themselves. Why have some MNCs done so well where others have failed? This article is an attempt to provide an intuitive explanation of what determines success in the Indian market place. Background Today, virtually all the big MNCs in the world have operations in India. We will write a custom essay sample on Mncs in India or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These include Unilever, BAT, Colgate Palmolive, Procter Gamble, General Electric, General Motors, Ford, Pepsi, IBM, Intel, Texas Instruments, Microsoft, Oracle and Coca-Cola. India is now considered by many MNCs to be a strategically important market. Historically, the main reason for the entry of MNCs into India was to jump the tariff wall. High import duties made it difficult if not impossible to export finished goods from the home country to India. On the other hand, once they entered the country and set up operations, the countrys high tariffs guaranteed adequate protection. In some cases, the need to customise products necessitated a strong local presence. Unilever set up its Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Lever and gave it full freedom to develop various products to suit local tastes and usage conditions. This would obviously not have been possible if Unilever had only been exporting its products to India. In recent times, other reasons have made India an attractive destination for MNCs. India has emerged as a low cost back office, manufacturing and research base, thanks to its skilled but relatively cheap manpower. In the computer software industry, many MNCs are establishing offshore development centres to tap local manpower. IBM, Accenture, EDS and Computer Associates have all been strengthening their presence in the country. Not only are Indian software workers among the best in the world, when it comes to technical skills but they are also more comfortable with English, compared to their counterparts in countries such as China. Dell and Deloitte have major back office operations in the country. General Electric (GE) is looking at India as an important R base which can contribute to their global knowledge pool. GEs local outfit has filed for several patents in the last couple of years. Nokia has set up three RD centres that work on next-generation packet-switched mobile technologies and communications solutions. Texas Instruments is also doing cutting edge RD work in the country. Varying degrees of success While several MNCs have entered India, not all of them are doing well. This is evident when performances are compared across industries. However, even within a given industry, some MNCs seem to be doing better than the others. Consider the automobile industry. Here, Suzuki and Hyundai are way ahead of formidable rivals such as General Motors, Honda and Ford. Similarly in the FMCG sector, even after allowing for its relative late entry, Procter Gamble (PG) remains a marginal player compared to Hindustan Lever. In some industries, the MNCs have been left high and dry by the local players. In the paint industry, the local player, Asian Paints has beaten the MNCs by a huge margin. Then, there is also the unique case of an MNC, Indian Aluminium (Indal), actually being taken over by an Indian company, Hindustan Aluminium. One must be careful while explaining the good performance of some MNCs and the poor performance of others. An important point to note here is that different MNCs have entered India at different points in time and responded to the needs of the environment accordingly. For example, MNCs which entered India since the 1990s have in general been more aggressive and proactive in a liberalised business environment, than those which began operations during the license Raj. Hyundai, Samsung and LG are good examples. The older MNCs like Bata have also been handicapped by the baggage accumulated over a period of time. Such companies are often at a disadvantage due to their bloated manpower and inefficient manufacturing facilities. Of the 50-plus[2] MNCs with a significant presence in India, the nine market leaders, including British American Tobacco (BAT), Hyundai Motor, Suzuki Motor, and Unilever, have an average return on capital employed of around 48 percent. Even the next 26 have an average ROCE of 36 percent. The most successful MNCs in India have some common characteristics. Resisting the instinct to transplant to India the best practices of other countries, they have treated the country as a strategic market. These companies have also taken a long term view. They have invested time and resources to understand local consumers and business conditions. They have understood that the price points that matter in India are different from those in other countries. In a country where the middle and lower-end segments are critically important, affordability is a crucial factor. At the same time, some of the successful MNCs have also realised that price is not the only factor driving purchase decisions. Value conscious consumers, will pay a premium if the benefits of superior features and quality are seen to far outweigh their cost. LG for example, has reengineered its TV product specifications in order to develop three offerings specifically for India, including a no-frills one to expand the market at the low end and a premium 21-inch flat TV for the middle segment. By keeping the price of the premium offering to within 10 percent of the price of TVs with conventional screens, LG has persuaded many consumers to buy it. These innovations have helped the company to establish a very strong competitive position in the countrys consumer durable-goods and electronics appliances market. The story of Unilever, Bata and Alcan Consider three of the earliest entrants into the Indian market Unilever, Bata and Alcan (India’s parent). The company which demonstrated the highest degree of early commitment to the Indian market was obviously Bata. The shoe major invested in a fairly elaborate distribution network with company owned retail shops in even small towns. Bata also took the bold step of targeting the mass markets instead of just milking the premium segments. It targeted middle class Indians with value-for-money products. Indeed, many Indians do not know that Bata is an MNC. In targeting up-market segments, however, Bata began to deviate from this strategy in the late 1980s. And even as it struggled to deal with the labour problems in its Calcutta factory, Bata saw its market share being rapidly eroded by nimble footed local players such as Liberty. Like Bata, Hindustan Lever Ltd (HLL) also displayed a clear intention from early on to take the Indian markets seriously. It set up a huge distribution network and developed a wide product range. HLL’s efforts to penetrate the rural markets have only taken off in recent times. Compared to local competitors like Nirma and Cavinkare, some of its products look overpriced. Yet, HLL has a strong presence in India that has inspired the awe of other MNCs. Despite struggling to grow in recent years, HLL dominates most of the product categories in which it competes. To give a comparative perspective, global rival Procter Gamble is way behind. HLL also continues to attract the best talent in the country. Today, HLL finds itself at a cross roads. To generate further growth, HLL will have to design from scratch, value-for-money products for the rural markets and further strengthen its rural marketing efforts. But there are signs that under new chairman, Harish Manwani and a new expatriate CEO, Douglas Baillie, HLL is poised for a rebound. Growth is back on top of the agenda. The case of Alcan is even more interesting. Unlike Bata and HLL, Alcan showed little inclination to invest and build its business in India. Essentially, Alcan looked at India as a cheap source of bauxite, the main raw material used in the manufacture of aluminium. It did not build captive power plants, despite being fully aware of the pitfalls involved in depending heavily on the countrys poorly managed State Electricity Boards. Alcan depended heavily on outsourced aluminium metal, having decided not to invest adequately in smelters and power plants, the heart of any aluminium manufacturing process. No wonder Hindustan Aluminium, the leading private sector player in the Indian aluminum industry, through its vertical integration strategy was not only able to maintain its competitiveness but even managed to take over Alcan. Today, HLL, despite its recent growth problems is one of India’s best managed MNCs and one of the star performers in the Unilever group. However, it is facing a distinct threat from cheaper brands. On . the other hand, Bata is attempting a turnaround, trying to regain its focus on the mass markets. This is a major correction from the misplaced strategies of the late 1980s and early 1990s. And Indal, no longer exists, having been taken over by Hindalco. The story of the three MNCs offers useful lessons which we shall summarise at the end of the article. Hyundai’s success If Unilever, Bata and Alcan represent the story of MNCs which entered India very early on, the Koreans symbolize the picture in case of companies which have entered the country in the post reforms era. Take the case of Hyundai, which chose to enter the Indian market, with a small car (Santro) which offers value for money to the countrys price sensitive consumers. Hyundai has also made very heavy investments in manufacturing facilities. After its initial success, Hyundai has started to widen its product range. Hyundai is one of the few MNCs to have established meaningful volumes in India in quick time. The company is among the top three car manufacturers in the country and is now emerging as a real threat to the market leader, Maruti in which Suzuki of Japan has a major stake. There are many lessons to be learnt from Hyundai. The company spent several months customizing Santro. Realising that Indian consumers attach much importance to lifetime ownership costs, Hyundai reduced the engine output of the Santro to keep its fuel efficiency high, priced its spare parts reasonably, and made various changes to the product specifications to suit Indian market conditions. In contrast, other global automakers have entered the market with vehicles with low gas mileage and high repair rates and after-sales service costs. Unlike many of the global auto manufacturers in India which source only about 60 to 70 percent of their components locally, Hyundai buys 90 percent. Hyundai has also plans to make India a global manufacturing hub that can serve other countries as the local market matures. Contrast Hyundai with players like Honda and Ford who have been very tentative about setting up full-fledged manufacturing facilities. The importance of commitment Commitment is important while competing in India. Commitment is often reflected in the entry strategy. Multinationals entering emerging markets often form joint ventures with local partners for a variety of reasons. These include their ability to influence public policy, to leverage existing products as well as marketing and sales capabilities, and to comply with regulatory requirements when foreign participation is restricted to less than 50 percent of a business. While joint ventures can facilitate quick access to important assets, especially in â€Å"strategic† industries like metals and mining and oil and gas, they often run into problems, down the line. As a recent McKinsey article[3] has mentioned, of the 25 major joint ventures established from 1993 to 2003, only 3 survive. Most ran into problems because the local partner couldnt invest enough resources to expand the business as quickly as the multinational had hoped. As a result, most of the multinationals that initially entered the market through joint ventures have disbanded them and pursued independent operations. The Korean multinationals, such as Hyundai and LG, have bypassed joint ventures entirely. They have retained management control and closely monitored the operations, making bold investments when the situation has demanded. By being on its own, LG has been able to move at a fast pace. After starting its operations, within a space of five months, it was able to complete its nationwide launch. Almost all companies took up to two years to complete their all-India launch. LG has the support of its parent not only for technology, but also for financial help. For instance, a substantial portion of the bill for sponsoring the 1999 World Cup cricket tournament was picked up by the parent company. The second aspect of commitment is the investments MNCs make in manufacturing facilities and other infrastructure such as distribution. LG has not hesitated to pump in money. By early 2000, it had invested almost $300 million with plans for investing another $100 million. In recent times, LG has been increasing its production capacity in India, for most products including colour televisions, washing machines, air conditioners, microwave ovens and refrigerators. Nokia is another MNC which has shown strong commitment to the Indian market by making necessary investments. From setting up a manufacturing base for handsets in India to creating financing options for cellphones, to working with cellular operators to reduce airtime costs, Nokia has launched various initiatives to lower the cost of owning and using a mobile phone. Nokia has also established a formidable distribution network that reaches over 25,000 dealers, a network that is about three times the size of Samsungs, six times that of Sony-Ericssons and one-fourth of Hindustan Lever’s (India’s largest fast moving consumer goods company). Nokia has built up this network from scratch by focusing on dealers of fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) and consumer durables. Many of Nokia’s regional distributors are former FMCG middlemen who find the margins in the mobile phones business more attractive. In the infrastructure business, Nokia Networks has become a key supplier to all five GSM operators in the country; Bharti, BSNL, BPL, Hutchison, and IDEA. Nokia works closely with the operators to lower the total cost of ownership and usage for consumers. A third aspect of commitment is the amount of time and effort spent on understanding Indian consumers and then meeting their needs. LG has worked hard to understand Indian customers and identify features which appeal to Indian customers. LG televisions incorporate golden eye[4] technology and multilingual on-screen displays; refrigerators use preserve nutrition technology and washing machines the chaos punch plus three†[5] technology. LGs commitment to the Indian market can also be judged from its wide product range. In the case of washing machines, LG has been offering 6-kg equipment instead of its usual 4. kg models, to take into account the requirements of large Indian households. Such efforts have paid rich dividends for LG. The company ended 2004 with market shares of 24 % for color televisions, 33 % for washing machines, 41 % for microwave ovens, 26 % for refrigerators and 35 % for air conditioners[6]. With such high market shares, the company looks well placed to consoli date its presence in the country. A vast segment of India’s population resides in rural areas. So understanding the needs of rural customers is a huge issue. This argument is especially applicable to companies marketing consumer goods. But serving rural markets requires plenty of commitment in terms of understanding customer needs, developing products from the ground up and putting in place the necessary infrastructure especially distribution. LG is trying to build on its early success by aggressively penetrating the rural markets and by offering more value for money items. For the rural market, LG has launched a stripped down range of television sets called Sampoorna. Another company which has taken the rural markets seriously is Coca Cola. In the rural areas, Coca Cola has used a three-tier hub-and-spoke distribution model to ensure deeper penetration. The company depot supplies twice a week to large distributors who act as hubs. These distributors in turn supply goods to smaller distributors in adjoining areas. Large trucks are used to move stocks from the bottling plant to the â€Å"hubs†. Medium commercial vehicles are used to move stocks from the hub to the spokes. The small distributors have their own low-cost means like auto rickshaws and cycles, to reach the product to every nook and corner. Coca Cola provides retailers thermo-cool boxes while others with power connections have been offered cold storage facilities under an ‘own-your-asset’ scheme. The company has negotiated big discounts from refrigerator manufacturers and supplied 2. 5 lakh refrigerators to retail outlets in 2003. Finally, commitment is also reflected in the way MNCs deal with local government regulation. In emerging markets like India, where deregulation is still in progress in many industries and the regulatory authorities are themselves often not clear about what needs to be done, companies must be flexible and patient. Regulations governing the India mobile-telephony sector, for example, have been amended several times since 1994. The government had two licensed operators per region back then and now has as many as six. Although most multinationals left the sector when the regulations changed, Hutchison Whampoa continued to invest in India. Today, Hutchison Essar is one of the top three mobile services companies in the country in terms of market share. The most successful MNCs have invested much time and energy to identify and understand the key policy makers and even to suggest regulatory changes. They have resisted the temptation to appoint agents or joint venture partners to liaison with the bureaucrats involved in policy making. Conclusion The above experiences clearly bring home the point that success in the Indian market depends crucially on commitment. 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